既然 Since

既然 (jìrán) can be translated as "since", “now that” or “this being the case” in English. The most common structure is: 既然(jìrán) … 就/也(jiù/yě) …, meaning "Since (Now that)..., then...."

This construction is not generally used to express a result, but more of a suggestion or inference deduced from the first fact.

Rules

  • “既然” can come either before or after the Subject.
  • While “then” is often omitted in English, “就” is necessary in Chinese.
  • 既然 …, 就/也
    jìrán (nǐ) láile, jiù jìnwū zuò yíhuìr bɑ!
    既然 (你) 来了, 进屋 坐 一会儿吧!

    Since you are here, come on in and sit for a while!

    jìrán nǐ búqù, wǒ yě búqù le.
    既然 你 不去, 我 也 不去 了。

    Since you are not going, I am not going either.

    Another pattern is: “既然…, Question Words (为什么/怎么) …?”, meaning: Now that…, why/how come…?

    既然 …, QW …?
    nǐ jìrán zhīdào zhèmezuò búduì, wèishénme háiyào zhèyànɡzuò ne?
    你 既然 知道 这么做 不对, 为什么 还要 这样做呢?

    Since you knew it is wrong to do so, why did you do it anyway?

    nǐ jìrán zhīdào jīntiān hěnlěnɡ, zěnme bù duōchuān diǎnr ne?
    你 既然 知道 今天 很冷, 怎么 不 多穿 点儿 呢?

    Since you knew it is cold today, how come you wear so few?

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